Introducing Jill Seapker

Jill Seapker

Hi – my name is Jill Seapker and I am a new student worker in the Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection at UH Mānoa. I am in my first year in the MLIS program, and after twenty years of teaching, working in a calm, quiet place feels pretty magical. My undergraduate degree from Antioch College is in History, Philosophy, and Religion, so it feels like I am getting back to my roots here. I am new to archiving, and I am new to Hawaiʻi, so I feel very lucky to have this opportunity to learn about the history of Hawaiʻi and archival processes by working with Senator Daniel K. Inouye’s papers

I am working on correcting Optical Character Recognition (OCR) in Inouye’s speeches, so I wanted to learn more about his life. I started by looking at the Daniel K. Inouye Institute website. I was surprised to learn that he gave the speech at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in 1968. Those were tumultuous times, and I was curious about his development of that speech, so I started by looking at the finding aid.  I went to the Collection Organization on the right hand side of the page, and under speeches I clicked the year 1968. I was able to access the PDFs of his original speeches stored in Box SP2 Folder 4 through eVols. 

In the box Speeches and messages: 1968 (1 of 2), I learned that Inouye gave many speeches in Hawaiʻi before his keynote speech at the DNC in Chicago in 1968. In these speeches, he confronts the problems of racism, high housing costs, gun control, and the war in Vietnam. I was impressed at the detailed research he did on both the causes and solutions to these problems, as well as his courage to speak the truth.  

My favorite quote said by Inouye in this box is “The great tragedy of man is his inability to conquer hate and violence and to replace these traits with love and understanding.” This quote stood out to me because violence and hate normally just breed more of the same. If people would care to find out why people think and feel the way they do and care for other people, I think they would find that it is easier and leads to more positive results, both for themselves and others.

Last page of speech by Senator Daniel K. Inouye, testimonial dinner, Hilo, Hawaiʻi, August 8, 1968

Introducing Donovan Balderama

Donovan Balderama

Greetings, my name is Donovan Balderama. I am incredibly grateful to announce to you that I am the new student worker here at the Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection at UH Mānoa, recently hired by the Congressional Papers Archivist, Dawn Sueoka. A bit about me; I am a second year MLIS student in the archives pathway and have been profoundly interested in archival work since finishing up my undergraduate degree in American History. It was during my undergraduate degree in history that I had been introduced and exposed to the profession through primary source research and speaking with interesting archivists from different places with different backgrounds in the field. As I continue into my third week working at the Congressional Papers Collection, I am realizing more and more, that this profession is undoubtedly something that I would love to pursue in the long-term as a career.

Currently, I am in charge of working with three separate archival collections. However, in this blog, I will be writing about different themes or topics related to the Senator Daniel K. Inouye Papers. I found the Senator’s collection to be particularly intriguing because of the vastness and subject diversity of his collection, as well as the high level correspondence between his office, various federal government departments, communities, and individuals, of which pivotal information about both Hawaiʻi and the U.S as a whole is presented. He was an essential force in change and reform during his years as a senator, and a supreme force of good for the many different communities that he served. I find working on it to be interesting as well as a great experience to help me get familiarized with the overall collection.

The Senator Inouye Papers: Topic searched

For this blog post, I delved into some of the Senator’s documents related to the tragic event of the September 11 attack on the New York World Trade Centers. I figured that the Inouye collection would be an excellent place to look for 9-11 related materials because as we sometimes forget, along with witnessing 9-11, he also experienced a terror attack in his lifetime which caused massive hysteria in the United States; that being the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

In order to search for related materials, I used the database that we use called ArchivesSpace to search for resources in the Inouye collection. In his main collection, you can find the different series and subseries that that relate to various topics. After opening different file locations, I found that the best way to find related material was to look for the exact date or dates around September of 2001. I instantly found many related materials this way through both doing a text search and manually browsing the different folders I thought were related to the subject.

What I discovered

In the Staff Files series, I was able to find a lot of correspondence regarding post 9-11. For example, I found a correspondence letter from a student from Kīhei High School in Maui, who reached out to both Congresswoman Patsy Mink and Senator Inouye on a proposal to introduce a bill that would mint a coin in tribute to the victims on 9-11. It turns out they were both supportive of the proposal and introduced it in Congress sometime later. I also found an interesting news article mentioning the student’s efforts.

I was also able to find in the same folder, a letter from a man who was concerned about the recent racial profiling at airports by authorities and airline staff (this was before TSA), and compared it to the racial profiling and the surveillance on Japanese-American citizens during WWII with the FBI enemy lists. Attached in this finding is Senator Inouye’s response that mentions the Reasonable Search Standards Act, S.799, which was introduced in April 2001, only five months before the tragedy. Senator Inouye mentions his concern about recent policies being changed and assures the man that he would keep this in mind.

From a couple from Kāneʻohe, there was a letter addressed to Daniel Inouye regarding their frustration with the U.S government’s administrative handling of events post 9-11. They mention their dismay with the Bush administration by listing legislation such as the $25 billion hand out to non-anti-terror-related corporations for a federal counterterror fund; ineffective and “heavy-handed” airport security; and the FBI wire and email taps that have been monitoring “suspected terrorists.”

Overall, these documents certainly helped me to further understand the sentiment and opinions of people of various backgrounds relating to the tragedy during this time. These documents showed me that there were people around the nation and the world that observed and felt empathy, dismay, fear, frustration, and a whole array of other emotions; which naturally come with  historical calamities of such magnitudes. I believe the reason so many people such as students, politicians, foreign diplomats, and other individuals / groups addressed Daniel Inouye specifically, was because they felt that they could truly confide in the Senator, based on his own experience and track record for positive change. These people believed that, as a dignified, righteous, scrupulous, and steadfast American, he would listen and tend to the grievances that our democratic republic has allowed us to address for years despite the occasional setbacks.

Announcing the K. Mark Takai Papers

Representative K. Mark Takai, smiling, in suit, with American flag in background.

The Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection is excited to announce the opening of the K. Mark Takai Papers. This collection, generously donated by Takaiʻs wife Sami, documents the late congressman’s work in the Hawaiʻi State Legislature, his time in Congress, as well as his tenure as president of the Associated Students of the University of Hawaiʻi and editor of the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa student newspaper Ka Leo O Hawaiʻi

K. Mark Takai, a Pearl City High School and UH Mānoa graduate, represented ʻAiea and Pearl City in the Hawai’i State Legislature for 20 years, were he was known as a dedicated, energetic, and well-liked public servant and a champion of education and of veterans issues. While in the legislature, he established the Hawaiʻi Medal of Honor to honor servicemembers with Hawaiʻi ties that had been killed in Kuwait, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Takai himself was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Hawaiʻi Army National Guard and was activated in 2005, and again in 2009, when he deployed to Kuwait for 6 months.

Takai was elected to Congress in 2014 (representing Hawaiʻi’s First Congressional District), and was named to the House Committee on Armed Services and the House Committee on Natural Resources. Though he passed away from pancreatic cancer in 2016, his legislation to compensate military personnel exposed to radioactive debris in the Marshall Islands continued to be championed by his colleagues, as the Mark Takai Atomic Veterans Healthcare Parity Act. The measure became part of the 117th Congressʻs PACT Act, which expanded benefits for veterans exposed to toxic substances. It was signed into law by President Biden on August 10, 2022.

Governor David Ige, who served with Takai in the state legislature, offered this remembrance: “In the often tumultuous world of politics, [Mark Takai] has been a shining example of what it means to be a public servant.”

Below are some highlights from the collection:

  • Flier with photo of Mark Takai and headline reading "Vote for K. Mark Takai ASUH President. He has earned our trust."
  • ID badge with photo of Takai.
  • Photo of Duckworth and Takai. Inscription reads, "To Mark, Who knew at UH we'd make it this far? Aloha! Tammy"
  • President Obama and Representative Takai, both wearing cigar lei, shaking hands.

You can explore the collection and learn more about Rep. Takai via the collection’s online finding aid.

The Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection is very grateful to Rep. Takai’s wife, Sami Takai, for this gift!

Dignity, Equality, and Opportunity for All: Patsy Mink and Title IX

On Friday, April 29, 2022, the Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection, in partnership with the Department of Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies, hosted a talk by Judy Tzu-Chun Wu and Gwendolyn Mink about their biography Fierce and Fearless: Patsy Takemoto Mink, First Woman of Color in Congress. Fierce and Fearless is the first biography of Mink, who represented Hawaiʻi’s Second Congressional District in the U.S. House from 1965 to 1977, and from 1990 to 2002. 

Judy Tzu-Chun Wu and Gwendolyn Mink during their talk on Fierce and Fearless: Patsy Takemoto Mink, First Woman of Color in Congress.

The talk covered topics like the different feminist frames through which we can understand Minkʻs work, Wendy and Judyʻs approach to co-writing the book, and the long legislative journey that characterized Title IXʻs passage and implementation. Participants in the Q & A shared laughter and stories about Mink as a “force of nature.” 

The talk marked the launch of the virtual exhibit Dignity, Equality, and Opportunity for All: Patsy Mink and Title IX. The exhibit, which will be viewable online through December 31, 2022, features materials from the Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection (the Patsy Mink Memorabilia Collection, the Senator Hiram L. Fong Papers, the Senator Daniel K. Inouye Papers, the Senator Spark M. Matsunaga Papers, and the Neil Abercrombie Papers), the Democratic Party of Hawaiʻi Papers, the University Archives, and the Hawaiian Collection, as well as footage from the 2008 documentary Patsy Mink: Ahead of the Majority.

A particularly rewarding aspect of the exhibit research was learning more about Minkʻs time as a student at the University of Hawaiʻi. For instance, in 1948, she and the Associated Students of the University of Hawaiʻi organized a model constitutional convention to introduce students to the process of drafting a state constitution. Our University Archives holds their draft constitution, which a 1948 Honolulu Advertiser editorial said may contain “sound new ideas for inclusion in the state constitution’s final draft.”

Class council, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Class of 1948. Patsy Takemoto is on the far left. Future governor George Ariyoshi is in the back row, far right.

Mahalo to Wendy and Judy; to the Department of Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies, Department of American Studies, and Department of Ethnic Studies for hosting; to campus partners the William S. Richardson School of Law, UH Mānoa Women’s Center, Bridge to Hope, Student Parents at Mānoa, Student Equity Excellence Diversity (SEED), and the UH Mānoa Office of Title IX; and to Kimberlee Bassford of Making Waves Films for helping us to celebrate Patsy Mink this year!

Commissioning of the USS Daniel Inouye

On December 8, the USS Daniel Inouye (DDG 118) was commissioned at Pearl Harbor. The destroyer, whose motto is “Go For Broke,” honors Senator Inouye’s life and public service.

Left: Daniel Inouye enlisting in the army as a University of Hawaiʻi freshman, ca. January-February 1943. Photo: Ka Leo. Senator Daniel K. Inouye Papers, Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection, University Archives & Manuscripts Department, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Library. Right: The USS Daniel Inouye.

Inouye, a member of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, represented Hawaiʻi in the U.S. House from 1959 to 1963, and in the U.S. Senate from 1963 until his death in 2012. The Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection is honored to be the home of Senator Inouye’s papers. The Senator Daniel K. Inouye Papers, consisting of over 1,000 boxes, reflect much of Hawaiʻiʻs development from statehood through the early 2000s. Subjects that are well represented in the collection include land, agriculture, the military, maritime issues, natural resources issues, healthcare, programs and legislation relating to Native Hawaiians, and the effort to obtain redress for Japanese and Japanese Latin Americans interned during World War II.

The late Senator Bob Dole with Senator Inouye, May 9, 1986. As WWII soldiers wounded in Italy a week apart, Dole and Inouye recovered together at what is now known as the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center in Battle Creek, Michigan. U.S. Senate Photograph. Senator Daniel K. Inouye Papers, Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection, University Archives & Manuscripts Department, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Library.

Learn more about the Senator Daniel K. Inouye Papers by exploring the finding aid, which also includes links to material that has been digitized. If you have questions, or would like assistance accessing or navigating the collection, please reach out to Congressional Papers Archivist Dawn Sueoka (

We look forward to continuing to broaden access to this incredibly significant collection!

Introducing the Hawaiʻi Congressional Media Collection

Last week, we packed up 53 boxes of film and video and transported them from UH Mānoa Library’s Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection to ‘Uluʻulu: The Henry Kuʻualoa Giugni Moving Image Archive of Hawaiʻi at UH West Oʻahu. The boxes contained moving image material from the archival collections of Senator Spark Matsunaga, Representative Pat Saiki, Senator Hiram Fong, Representative Tom Gill, and Representative Neil Abercrombie–nearly 900 individual items in all. (AV material from Senator Akaka’s collection, which has not yet been processed by archives staff, is currently being prepared for transfer to ʻUluʻulu; AV material from Senator Daniel Inouye’s collection is already being cared for by ʻUluʻulu.)

The move is part of a partnership between the Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection and ʻUluʻulu to establish the Hawai’i Congressional Media Collection at ‘Ulu’ulu. Building on the strength of HCPC’s collections and on ‘Uluʻulu’s expertise and well-established infrastructure, the partnership will ensure that this important audiovisual documentation of Hawaiʻi’s political history will be preserved, digitized, and shared.

ʻUluʻulu head archivist Janel Quirante and digital media specialist Robbie Omura unload boxes of videotapes.

ʻUluʻulu Head Archivist Janel Quirante said, “All of us at ‘Ulu‘ulu are thrilled that we can work in partnership with the University Archives & Manuscripts Department to help preserve, digitize and make accessible the Hawaiʻi Congressional Media collection. It was so exciting to peek inside the boxes when they arrived at ‘Ulu‘ulu and see the media history of our state’s delegates to the U.S. Congress. I look forward to working with the collection, and helping students and researchers view the footage, some of which is over 50 years old!” 

Indeed, the materials date from the early 1960s through the early 2000s, and encompass a range of formats from 16mm film to miniDV tapes. They document significant issues facing Hawaiʻi over the last half-century, as well as issues and events of national and international importance. Highlights include footage of Senator Fong and President Nixon at the White House in 1970; television campaign spots for Representative Tom Gill; Senator Fong’s and then-Representative Matsunaga’s 1960s and 70s messages from the Senate and House Recording Studios; debates on redress for Japanese Americans interned during WWII; Representative Pat Saikiʻs Washington Reports; footage of President George H. W. Bushʻs 1990 visit to Hawaiʻi; Representative Neil Abercrombie’s campaign ads; and televised programming and debates on topics like sovereignty, land, the economy, the Jones Act, sugar, natural resource management, the Iraq war, and public education. 

“This collection is an amazing complement to the other political media collections housed at ‘Ulu‘ulu including the Hawaiʻi Political History Documentation Project from the Center for Labor Education and Research (CLEAR); the DIALOG public affairs television series from PBS Hawai‘i; the Daniel K. Inouye Oral History Project from the Daniel K. Inouye Institute; and the First Friday : The Unauthorized News television series from the Kamakakūokalani Center for Hawaiian Studies,” Quirante said.  

Assistant Archivist for Research and Outreach Archivist Tisha Aragaki, Congressional Papers Archivist Dawn Sueoka, Digital Media Specialist Robbie Omura, Auxiliary and Facilities Services Officer Mark Pascua, Cataloger and Assistant Archivist Koa Luke, and Head Archivist Janel Quirante with the Hawaiʻi Congressional Media Collection.

“Our next steps will be to prepare the materials for storage in our vault, accession the items into our catalog, and start planning and budgeting for their digitization,” she said. 

We will continue to keep you updated on the progress of this exciting initiative! Mahalo to ʻUluʻulu, and to the families of Senator Spark Matsunaga, Senator Hiram Fong, Representative Tom Gill, and Senator Daniel Akaka; and to Representative Pat Saiki and Representative Neil Abercrombie for their support for this partnership!

Snyder Hall – Part 2

Line drawing of the Health Research Institute Building from 1961.Note: Part 1 focused on Laurence Hasbrouck Snyder (1901-1986), sixth president of the University of Hawai‘i (from 1958 to 1963) and also an internationally known geneticist.  Designed by architects Takashi Anbe (1925-1985) and George K. C. Lee (1921-1995) and completed in 1962, the building that was eventually named after Snyder was built of reinforced concrete at a cost of $1.5 million. It is considered an excellent example of Tropical Modern architecture[1].

A group of people with picks and shovels at the July 1961 groundbreaking ceremony for the Health Research Institute Building

Snyder and others at the July 1961 groundbreaking for the Health Research Institute Building (later Snyder Hall). Masao Miyamoto photograph collection, University Archives.

Originally known as the Health Research Institute Building, the five-story, 60,000-square foot Snyder Hall is an excellent example of Tropical Modern architecture on campus; its operable metal louvers span the exterior, interrupted by vertical concrete columns and simple metal rails. The entrance features an elegant cascading staircase and landing—protected by a generous concrete and sheet metal canopy[2].

Over half of the University’s buildings were constructed during the period from 1960-1982. Between the years of 1959 to 1962, the old McCarthy Road—named after the Territorial Governor Charles McCarthy—was transformed into a pedestrian mall lined with monkeypod trees that helped to soften the harsh lines of structures along the mall. Four buildings—Webster, Spaulding, Edmondson, and Snyder Halls—formed what was designated as the “Memorial Quadrangle” in honor of those who had given their lives in the various wars of the 20th century[3]

Two men standing in front of the new commemorative plaque at the Snyder Hall renaming dedication ceremony in March 1968. The man on the right (with lei) is Laurence Snyder.

Laurence H. Snyder (right) at the dedication ceremony for the renamed Snyder Hall, March 1968. Masao Miyamoto photograph collection, University Archives.

In 1963 the Zoology Department moved from Gartley to Snyder Hall, which also housed the Microbiology Department and the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, parts of the John A. Burns School of Medicine[4].  It would be several years later before the laboratory rats were moved to the fifth floor of Snyder Hall, which housed Lab Animal Services[5].  Many recall the plaintive cries of other laboratory animals emitting from the fifth floor, including monkeys and roosters during the second half of the 20th century.

In 2015 Dr. Marguerite Butler, Associate Professor of Biology at UHM, supported the strategic thinking of the System-Level Integrated Academic & Facilities plan resolution but expressed concern over the lack of consultation with faculty regarding Snyder Hall and the unmet needs of the biology department to the Board of Regents[6].

The same year The Worst of Mānoa: Snyder and Kuykendall Hall was produced, revealing the degradation of the building.

The following year a steam leak filled the hallways of the second floor, renewing the call for renovation.  Two of the pharmaceutical cold rooms were broken at the time and despite passing the annual inspection on March 9, 1995, students and staff reported chemical fume hoods were not ventilating properly, compounded by falling ceiling tiles[7].

Inadequate facilities in Snyder Hall was cited as one of the reasons against the establishment of U.S. Navyʻs University Affiliated Research Center in 2006. Microbiology professors estimated that roughly 30% of all research conducted needed to be redone because of contamination from the building.

Line drawing of the Health Research Institute Building from 1961.

Line drawing of the Health Research Institute Building (later Snyder Hall), 1961. Masao Miyamoto photograph collection, University Archives.


[1] MXD_MOD: Modern Architecture in a multicultural context. DOCOMOMO US National Symposium 2019 Hawaii

[2] Tropical Modernism – UH SOA Higo and Irene Shen Gallery, 2019

[3] Science & Technology Department of Hamilton Library: History and Recollections, Wermager et al., 2017

[4] Hawaii Medical Journal July 1994 v 53 n7

[5] History of the Department of Psychology at the Univerity of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Haynes and Weaver 2007

[6] September 17, 2015 Board of Regents minutes

[7] “Snyder Hall steam leak raises concerns” Ka Leo o Hawaiʻi May 4, 2015.

A Woman in the House

The Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection celebrates the publication this month of former Congresswoman Pat Saiki’s memoir A Woman in the House. Saiki, who was born and raised in Hilo, was first elected to Congress in 1986, becoming the first Republican since statehood to represent Hawaiʻi in the U.S. House.

1986 Saiki for Congress bumper sticker. Patricia F. Saiki Papers, Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection, University Archives & Manuscripts Department, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Library.
1986 Saiki for Congress bumper sticker. Patricia F. Saiki Papers, Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection, University Archives & Manuscripts Department, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Library.

By the time she went to Congress, Saiki had worked as a teacher, been a delegate to the 1968 state constitutional convention, and served for 14 years in the state legislature, where she authored the Equal Rights Amendment to Hawaiʻiʻs state constitution, as well as a package of equal rights bills that would, for example, enable women to take out credit cards and mortgages in their own names, and make a wife’s adoption of her husband’s name upon marriage optional instead of mandatory.

Saiki helped to reorganize and rebuild the Hawaiʻi Republican Party following sweeping losses in the 1982 election. As chair of the party, she oversaw a three-fold increase in party membership and a major fundraising effort. During the next election, Honolulu voted for a Republican mayor (Frank Fasi, who had changed parties), and Hawaiʻi voted to re-elect president Ronald Reagan. 

“Republican decision-makers [in Washington] must become more clearly aware of Hawaii’s interests and its posture in the Pacific,” she told political scientist and Honolulu Advertiser columnist Daniel Tuttle in March 1986. Indeed, as a Republican, Saiki was able to gain critical Congressional and Presidential support for initiatives backed by Democratic members of the Hawaiʻi delegation, such as obtaining redress for Japanese Americans interned during WWII and stopping the bombing of Kahoʻolawe.

After serving 2 terms in the House, Saiki ran for U.S. Senate in 1990, but was defeated by Daniel Akaka. President George H. W. Bush appointed her administrator of the Small Business Administration in April 1991. Saiki again chaired the Hawaiʻi GOP in 2014.

Pat Saiki being sworn in as administrator of the Small Business Administration by Justice Sandra Day OʻConnor. Saikiʻs son Stanley Jr. holds the bible, and President George H. W. Bush looks on. April 10, 1991. Photo: Marty La Vor.  Patricia F. Saiki Papers, Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection, University Archives & Manuscripts Department, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Library.
Pat Saiki being sworn in as administrator of the Small Business Administration by Justice Sandra Day OʻConnor. Saikiʻs son Stanley Jr. holds the bible, and President George H. W. Bush looks on. April 10, 1991. Photo: Marty La Vor. Patricia F. Saiki Papers, Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collection, University Archives & Manuscripts Department, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Library.

The Patricia F. Saiki Papers, measuring approximately 18.5 linear feet, consist of a few items from Saikiʻs service in the state legislature, but most are from her terms in the U.S. Congress and the Small Business Administration. Saiki donated a large collection of newspaper clippings about her activities and interests dating from 1968 through 1990, including many documenting her successful and unsuccessful campaigns for public office. There are also a few memorabilia items, and a small collection of photographs taken throughout her career.

More information about Congresswoman Saiki, including a link to the collection’s finding aid, can be found on the Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collectionʻs website. A number of photographs from the collection have been digitized and are available in the Hawaiʻi Congressional Papers Collectionʻs digital image collection.

Order A Woman in the House from Congresswoman Saiki was recently interviewed on Hawaiʻi Public Radioʻs the Conversation. Find her interview here.


History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives. “SAIKI, Patricia.”,-Patricia-(S000014)/

Tuttle, Dan. “GOPʻs Saiki: Surprise in ʻ86?” The Honolulu Advertiser. March 3, 1986.

Snyder Hall – Part 1

Image of  the newly-built Health Research Institute, which was later renamed Snyder Hall
Note: Part 2 continues with more of the history of Snyder Hall
The impending demolition of Snyder Hall provides an opportunity to offer an account of the sixth UH President, Laurence Hasbrouck Snyder (1958 – 1963), for whom the building–originally named the Health Research Institute Building upon its completion in 1962–was renamed in 1967. Its construction cost of $1,507,025 was met partly by federal funds and it was designed by architects Takashi Anbe and George K. C. Lee, who also designed Webster and Spalding Halls.

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