Found in the Archives: 1903 and 1911 Agricultural Federal Bulletins Published in Hawaiian

Established in Hawaiʻi in 1901, one of the services of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Experiment Stations was to assist local farmers on widely cultivated local products. This work was recognized on the national level, “[a]s institutions that could not survive without public support, communication with the main supporting group of the general public, the farmers, was essential (Knoblauch, 1962).” The second Bulletin of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station (HAES), The Root Rot of Taro—written by agriculturist Thomas Sedgwick advocating traditional methods of crop rotation and plant care in 1902—was followed the next year with a Hawaiian language synopsis as Bulletin 4.

In 1911 No ka hooulu ana i ke kalo (For the cultivation of taro) and No ka hooulu ana i ka maia (For the cultivation of banana) were issued by the Kahua Hooulu o ka Oihana Mahiai o Amelika (Experiment Station of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture) and printed locally be Paradise of the Pacific, the forerunner of Honolulu Magazine, with authorship ascribed to E.V. Wilcox (with F.A. Clowes as co-author for the bulletin on taro). Wilcox was appointed Special Agent in Charge—the designation of the station’s director—of HAES in April 1908, and arrived in the islands June 15 of that year.  F.A. Clowes was hired by Jared G. Smith, the first director, as the agriculturalist in 1901. Unfortunately, the translator(s) for the Hawaiian works is not credited.

In a quest for the translator(s) of these works and to ascertain the frequency of such reports translated to other languages, a query was made to the National Archives and Records Administration [NARA], who identified Agricultural  Experiment Station records within Record Group [RG] 164: Records of the Cooperative State Research Service, 1888-1966. These guides were within the series RG 164 NC-132 14, General Correspondence and Other Records Concerning Insular Stations, 1897-1937. These records are arranged alphabetically by name of territory, and for the records prior to 1923, further sub-divided by chronological periods of varying lengths. Records relating to the Hawaii Experiment Station are in boxes 39-65, with the years 1898-1911 in boxes 39-48.

While NARA could not determine the frequency or other attributes of these translations the Index to publications of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, July 1, 1901, to December 31, 1911 lists under Special Bulletins by HAES both the two 1911 works in Hawaiian and two in Portuguese on bananas and grapes (p8).

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Announcing the Roger A. Long Papers

This post was written by University Archives & Manuscripts student assistant Sharnelle Renti Cruz.

Headshot of Roger Long

One of the many portrait photos Roger Long used for his actor’s portfolio.

The Roger A. Long Papers contain the research and academic work of Roger Long, the former Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Humanities and Emeritus professor of Asian Theatre at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.  His lifelong passion of Indonesian Wayang Kulit (Javanese Shadow puppetry) is truly preserved and represented in this collection of biographical materials, which include his correspondence, a sampling of materials relating to theatrical productions, audio recordings, scrapbooks about Malaysian theatre, photographs of Southeast Asian theatrical performances, an actor’s portfolio of professional photographs, and both published and unpublished writings.

Born in 1938, Roger Alan Long was raised in Illinois and graduated from Decatur High School, later pursuing a BA in theatre in 1961 from Southern Illinois University.  His acting career started with productions at his educational institutions and in his community: playing in both professional and amateur professional summer stock in Illinois, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Canada, Long later undertook film and television work.   Long launched his academic career at Michigan State University by teaching an acting course while a graduate student in speech. Studying with Professors Farley Richmond and James Brandon, he developed an interest in Asian theatre. He completed his MA and graduated in June 1967 with a thesis comparing the social roles of female characters in Communist Chinese plays with the roles of women in traditional Chinese society.

Roger Long with an Indonesian puppet.

Long performing Irawan’s Wedding, a Wayang Kulit play, in Hawai’i in 1971.

With Brandon’s encouragement Long enrolled in a doctoral program at the University of Hawai‘i. Supported by a John D. Rockefeller III grant, he went to Indonesia in mid–1967 for two years to carry out fieldwork for his dissertation studying Wayang, a highly sophisticated form of traditional theatre and cultural expression. He specialized in Wayang Kulit, one of the many different forms of Wayang theatre performed with articulated leather shadow puppets.  While conducting fieldwork on Wayang Kulit Purwa in Yogyakarta, Central Java Long was affiliated with the Habirandha Sekolah Pedhalangan (Haibrandha School for Dalang), of which he was a lifelong supporter.

Several people performing shadow puppetry outdoors, holding puppets up against a scrim.

Bali Gugur performance in Hawai‘i, 1981.

As an actor, director, scholar, and professor of theatre, Roger Long was able to bring his Wayang background and expertise to the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa as a Professor of Asian Theatre, Contemporary Asian Dramatic Literature, and Asian acting for the Western actor.  As put by Kathy Foley, editor of Asian Theatre Journal and a fellow Professor of Theatre Arts at the University of California-Santa Cruz, “Roger Long—promoted understanding of Southeast Asian theatre, especially the Wayang kulit purwa shadow theatre of Central Java.”

Indonesian puppet.

Indragit puppet from a Wayang Kuilit.

Long was on the Mānoa faculty from 1976 until his retirement in 2004 and had served for ten years as the Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Humanities; he was also the past chair of the Department of Theatre and Dance and of the Southeast Asian Studies program.  Throughout his career at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, he directed and produced many performances at Kennedy Theatre and Mānoa Valley Theatre; some of these productions can be found through his production materials on Bali Gugur, Path to Freedom/ Panata sa Kalayan, and Kathakali, etc.

The bulk of Long’s collection pertains to his Wayang projects, audio recordings, documents, and photographic research accumulated through his research over the years.  During his field research in Java and Bali (which occurred between 1967 and 1969), Long made 42 original audio recordings of Wayang Kulit performances.

Typescript with handwritten annotations.

Field notes transcribed to Microsoft word format for the Wayang: Gathutkaca Wisudha, 2006.

These audio recordings were then translated and transcribed, some of these recordings are also accompanied by transcriptions, translations, music transcriptions, synopses, and field notes.  These can be viewed in the Document series of this collection.  In addition, there are texts or summaries of many lakon, (stories, plots, drama scenarios,) and ruwatan, plus notes from interviews with puppet masters, records of his travel to Java, information about the three sets of Wayang puppets he collected, and notes, transcriptions, and photographs of Wayang, and other theatrical performances.

The collection also includes some of Long’s more personal documents, such as his correspondence with colleagues, friends, and family; and photographs of his childhood, travels, and productions, as well as his training journals, and student papers. The biographical data and materials in this collection correlate to his theatrical productions, experience, and lifelong work to preserve the art form of Wayang.  His interests are evident in his published and unpublished writings whose performance genres include those of India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.  Long’s collection also includes complete Javanese transcriptions and translations into English of a selection of the best of his Wayang performance recordings.

The Roger A. Long collection is available for public research and is split into three series:  Documents, Photographs, and Audio recordings, and spans from the early 1950s until his death in 2007.  The collection is truly a great introduction to the exquisite art form of Wayang Southeast Asia, and it allows one uninitiated with the specific languages and traditions used in the Wayang a means of understanding and learning more about the concepts and culture captured in the style:  its use as entertainment, its teachings, and its ritual observances, realities, and humor.

You can find more information about this collection through the UH-Mānoa Catalog for Archival Materials website: https://archivesspace.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/repositories/4/resources/256

Announcing the James R. Brandon Papers

This post is by Univ. Archives & Manuscripts student assistant Steven Fluckiger, who processed the Brandon Papers.

A new addition to the University Archives, the James R. Brandon Papers contain the research and academic work of Dr. James R. Brandon, former professor of theatre and drama at University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. He is most recognized for his groundbreaking research on kabuki theatre and censorship from the Japanese government and the U.S. military during the twentieth century.

Occupation-era document mentioning censorship of Japanese media

Occupation-era document mentioning censorship of Japanese media.

Born in Minnesota in 1927, Brandon graduated from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1948 and 1949 with his bachelor’s and master’s degrees respectively in theatre and speech. In 1950, he was drafted into the Korean War where he discovered kabuki theatre while stationed in Japan. After the war, he went back to UW to receive his PhD in theatre and television and joined the U.S. Foreign Service and was stationed in Jakarta. Here he frequented many performances which motivated him to write Theatre in Southeast Asia in 1967.

Well versed in Japanese and Indonesian theatre, Brandon accepted a position in UH’s theatre department from 1968 to 2000. During his tenure, he produced twenty-two productions, co-founded the Asian Theatre Journal, served as department chair, and brought international recognition to the department through his scholarship and production of English-language kabuki plays. After retiring, he continued in his scholarship, including accepting a semester-long teaching position at Harvard.

Cover of James Brandon's 2008 book, Kabuki's Forgotten War, 1931-1945

Cover of James Brandon’s 2008 book, Kabuki’s Forgotten War, 1931-1945

Brandon passed away on September 19th, 2015 in Honolulu. At the time of his death, he published twenty books on theatre, kabuki, and censorship, including English translations of kabuki classics. These works also included research about U.S. military censorship of kabuki after World War II as well as Japanese censorship before and during the war. He received several awards and recognitions, including the Imperial Decoration of the Order of the Rising Sun with Gold Rays with Rosette from the Government of Japan, the John D. Rockefeller 3rd Award from the Asian Cultural Council, a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Hawaiʻi State Theatre Council, and the UH Regents’ Medal for Outstanding Teaching.

This collection contains much of his research from the 1960s to his passing. A significant portion of this collection is dedicated to his research of censorship: before, during, and after World War II. They are now available for public research and will prove to be fascinating to all, from the beginner researcher to the most seasoned scholar.

Exhibit Announcement – “Loyalty Honored: The 442nd RCT during WWII and as Remembered Since”

View of part of the 'Loyalty Honored' exhibit

442nd RCT uniform jacket with insignia.

As previously mentioned, the past several months have been occupied with planning for an exhibit celebrating the 75th anniversary of the formation of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team (RCT).

Early on in WWII, all Japanese American citizens were classified by the Selective Service as 4-C, ‘enemy aliens’.  Even after that blanket classification was lifted, however, some branches of the U.S. military never accepted more than a handful of Americans of Japanese Ancestry (AJAs).  The  Army was the major exception, eventually fielding tens of thousands of Japanese Americans in various units, including the 442nd RCT.

Using documents and artifacts from the collections of UH-Mānoa Library’s University Archives & Manuscripts Department, ‘Loyalty Honored’ first looks at the 442nd’s wartime service in Europe, with detours along the way to examine AJA units like the 100th Battalion and the Varsity Victory Volunteers that paved the way for the RCT on the one hand and those like the Military Intelligence Service and the AJAs of the Women’s Army Corps that served primarily in the Pacific.  It then touches on a few of the ways the 442nd’s legacy has endured and grown more widely recognized since the veterans returned home, reunited with their comrades, and started sharing their stories.

The exhibit is split into two parts: two cases of highlights in Hamilton Library’s main lobby, and the main exhibit in the University Archives & Manuscripts Department’s Moir Reading Room.  The highlight cases are on view March 5th-30th; while the main exhibit is on view through May during the Archives’ open hours, M-F 9:30-3:30.  (To see the exhibit when the Archives isn’t open—Mondays 9:30-5 and Tuesdays-Fridays 3:30-5—please email ltdawson@hawaii.edu to make an appointment.)

Additional exhibit photos:

View of part of the 'Loyalty Honored' exhibit

Downstairs lobby cases with teaser items and sign directing visitors to the main exhibit in Moir Reading Room.

View of part of the 'Loyalty Honored' exhibit

Opening panel of the main portion of the exhibit.

View of part of the 'Loyalty Honored' exhibit

Prior to the 442nd: Sketchbooks by 100th Battalion (Separate) soldier Yoshio Takemoto.

View of part of the 'Loyalty Honored' exhibit

Photos of the 442nd preparing for their send-off in March, 1943.

View of part of the 'Loyalty Honored' exhibit

From history to culture: reuses and re-imaginations of a famous 442nd photo.

 

Welcome Ashley / Reading Room Reopening!

The University Archives & Manuscripts Department gladly welcomes our newest staff member, Ashley Kajioka!  Ashley has been hired as our Reference Archivist, and thanks to her presence we are able to expand the hours that we are open.

Starting Tuesday, December 6th, our new hours are Tuesday through Friday, 9:30am-3:30pm (with the exception of the last week of the year).   The Moir Reading Room is located on the 5th floor of the Hamilton Library Addition.  (Hamilton Library floor maps here.)

In addition to taking on a good portion of the department’s reference responsibilities, Ashley will also arrange and describe archival materials, starting with the papers of former Bishop Museum Curator and UH Zoology Professor William A. Bryan. Ashley has previously worked with the University Archives & Manuscripts Department as a student assistant, and has also held positions at Sinclair Library and at KCC’s Lama Library.